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Die Indexikalität der Erkenntnis
Herausgegeben von Helmut Pape
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Indexikalität oder Objektivität?
Indexikalität der Wahrnehmungsurteile
Indexikalität und Sozialität
Der EURO kommt
Die Säulen des Herkules
Veranstaltungen, Kalender, Vorschau
9. Internationaler Kongreß der DGS 1999
The indexicality of perception judgements in Schlick and Neurath
Helmut Pape, University of Hannover
Summary. In the philosophy of science and in epistemology, indexical and contextual factors of representation are very often described as limits of the objectivity of scientific knowledge. In these introductory remarks, it is argued that the three contributions collected in this volume show that indexical representations have their own form of intersubjectivity and objectivity which complement rather than contradict scientific objectivity. The attribution of indexical contents and references to oneself and to other people is both a genuine and irreplaceable part of knowledge.
Indexicality of experience or objectivity of knowledge?
Hilpinen, Universities of Miami and Turku
Summary. According to Moritz Schlick, the foundation of empirical knowledge consists of indexical beliefs (Konstatierungen, observation propositions) which cannot be part of a believer's system of long-term representations or "a system of scientific propositions". This paper discusses Schlick's characterization of foundational beliefs and their relationship to the "system propositions" in the historical context of his debate with Otto Neurath. The inference of system beliefs from indexical observational beliefs is analyzed as a form of abductive inference. It is shown that the distinction between immediate perceptual beliefs and system beliefs (short-term and long-term representations) depends on different ways of identifying the objects of the beliefs.
Knowledge, indexicality and sociality
Bertram Kienzle, University
Summary. Knowledge has a social nature. This is the hypothesis developed in a novel approach to overcome some of the difficulties of the standard view of knowledge. The argument is presented in two steps. In the first step it is shown that knowledge depends on the 1st person plural indexical "we". The second step elucidates the social character of the rules which govern the use of this pronoun. In this respect the social nature of knowledge depends upon its indexicality.
Indexicals as means of joint reference
Baltzer, Technical University Dresden
Summary. Indexicals have a joint reference which, up to now, has been neglected by philosophical analysis. This paper examines the indexicals "now; "here", and "yesterday". There is a joint reference if the speaker and the listener each refer to an entity only because the other also refers to that entity. Therefore, the joint reference of an indexical requires the combination of the different perspectives of speaker and listener. In this combination the different perspectives remain different, converging only on the indicated entity. It is irrelevant for the indexical whether any or all members of the speaker-listener community regarding the features of the indicated entity when the indexical reference is a joint reference. Indexicals have Fregean sense because they have an epistemic content. Given this conclusion, Evan's conception of the sense of indexicals must be modified, as must Kaplan's and Perry's criticisms of Frege. It is the combination of speaker and listener perspectives which, in the end, makes it possible to explain the irritating two-sidedness of the indexical "I": the immunity to error through misidentification in 1st person self-ascriptions and the public verification of utterances of "I" by way of the actions and states of the speaker in 3rd person evaluations.
Documentation: The arrival of the EURO: comment on the introduction of the new currency
Ute Werner, University of Karlsruhe
Summary. Not later than January 2002 we will be handling new banknotes and coins, and cheques are already carrying the new Euro symbol. It might be appropriate then for us to reflect once again on the sign character of money. While keeping in mind that there are other forms of legal tender, this study concentrates on money with material sign-vehicles like coins and notes. Besides the regular monetary functions, Euro coins and notes have the task of symbolizing Europe's growing interconnectedness. Central to this study is the question of how this task is realized in the design of notes and coins.
The columns of Hercules
Christian Weyers, Technical University Dresden
Summary. The following article outlines a variety of iconographic functions of the so-called "Columns of Hercules" logogram. Along with the motto "Plus ultra", it was first used by Emperor Charles V as Spain was reaching the apex of its position as a world power. The logogram has enjoyed worldwide circulation through its use on Spanish American coins (especially on the pieces of eight, the predecessor of the U.S. Dollar). It did not become reintegrated into the state heraldry of Spain, however, until the "Gobierno Provisional" (1868-1871) and the First republic. Despite its link to Spanish imperialism, the "Colums of Hercules" have remained popular both in Spanish America and Europe. In addition to its appearance in the heraldry of cities and families, the logogram has ever been used by makers of tobacco and brandy to market their products.